Isaac Monroe: U.S. Volunteers: “…and Yankee Doodle played…”

Among the celebrated Old Defenders’ of Baltimore was Isaac Munroe.  He was born near Boston in 1774, learned the printer’s trade and eventually in his maturity founded the Boston Patriot. In 1812 he removed to Baltimore and in 1813 founded the Baltimore Patriot and Evening Advertiser newspaper that chronicled the Battle for Baltimore in 1814.

September 17, 1814. Three days after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, Isaac Munore, editor of the Baltimore Patriot and Evening Advertiser wrote a letter to a fellow editor of The [Boston] Yankee. As a private in Captain Joseph H. Nicholson’s U.S. Volunteers, the Baltimore Fencibles at Fort McHenry he had personally witnessed the preparations and bombardment. His letter provides crucial evidence of those moments that gave birth to a new national song. Here are extracts from the letter:

“I will give you an account of the approach of the enemy before this place, so far as it came under my observation…while we were marching to town, the enemy tacked about, and just at dusk were seen under press of sail, with a fair wind, approaching the town. There movements were closely watched at the fort…We were all immediately rallied, and arrived at the Fort before 12, although the rain poured down in torrents. On our arrival we found the matches burning, the furnaces heated and vomiting red hot shot, and everything ready for a gallant defense..Tuesday morning, at which time they had advanced to within two and a halfmile of the Fort, arranged in most elegant order, all at anchor, forming a half circle, with four bomb vessels and a rocket ship…

…two of their headmost frigates opened upon us, but finding their shot not reaching us, they ceased and advanced upa little nearer. The moment they had taken their position, Major Armistead mounted the parapet and ordered a battery of 24 pounders to be opened upon them; immediately after a battery of 42’s followed, whe the whole fort let drive at them. We could see the shot strike the frigates in several instances, when every heart was gladdened, and we gave three cheers, the music playing Yankee Doodle….

…The bomb vessels advanced a little, and commenced a tremendous bombardment, which lasted all day and all night…the most tremendous bombardment ever known in this cuntry, without means of resisting it, upwards of 1500 bombs having fallen in and around the Fort…”

“…till dawn of day [on September 14], when they appeared to be disposed the to decline the unprofitable contes. At this time, our morning gun was fired, the flag hoisted, Yankee Doodle played, and we all appeared in full view [upon the ramparts] of a formidable and mortified enemy, who calculated upon our surender in 20 minutes after the commencement of the action.”

 He died on December 28, 1859 and “was respected for his integrity and general uprightness of character.” His final resting place is unknown.

Sources:  The Yankee (Boston), September 30, 1814; “An Yankee Doodle played: A Letter from Baltimore, 1814” by Scott S. Sheads, (Maryland Historical Magazine, No.76. Fall 1981), 380-382; Civilian & Telegraph (Cumberland, MD), December 29, 1859.

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Published in: on April 3, 2011 at 9:24 pm  Comments Off on Isaac Monroe: U.S. Volunteers: “…and Yankee Doodle played…”  

Fort Covington (1813-1836)

During the summer of 1813 several shore fortifications were under construction contiguous to Fort McHenry as precautionary defenses to the west of Fort McHenry guarding the Ferry Branch approach to Baltimore. Among these was Fort Covington named for Brig. General Leonard Covington (1788-1813) a Maryland native who was killed at the Battle of Chrysler’s Field in Upper Canada, Nov. 11, 1813. Prior the site was known as Fort Patapsco or Fort Wadsworth, named for Decius Wadsworth, U.S. Chief of Ordnance Department.

The fort was designed by Capt. Samuel Babcock, U.S. Corps of Engineers as a V-shaped 10’ high brick wall enclosure. In front facing the harbor was a 16 foot high ditch and parapet calculated for a battery of 10 or 12 18-Pdr cannon mounted en-barbette (to fire over the earthen walls), with quarters sufficient for a company and a powder magazine. Completed that fall and renamed, it was garrison by Captain Matthew S. Bunbury’s naval company of U.S. Sea Fencibles.

During the Battle for Baltimore, Sept 12-14, 1814 the services of the Fencibles were replaced by Lt. Henry S. Newcomb’s U.S. naval command of eighty sailors who had arrived from Philadelphia with Commodore John Rodgers command of the U.S. frigate Guerriere. On the wind-swept stormy night of Sept, 13 Fort Covington along with nearby Battery Babcock and Fort Look-Out, successfully repulsed a British flotilla advance having past to the west of Fort McHenry. The advance was checked and the British withdrew to the safety of the fleet in the outer harbor.

In the post war years a small detachment guarded the government property until 1836 when all of its materials were sold at public auction. No remains are left today near the site of The Sun newspaper facilities.

Sources: Capt. Samuel Babcock to U.S. Secretary of War John Armstrong, Dec. 1, 1813; Lt. Henry S. Newcomb to Commodore John Rodgers, Sept. 18, 1814. Rodgers Papers, Library of Congress; The Rockets Red Glare: The Maritime Defense of Baltimore in 1814 by Scott S. Sheads (Centerville, Md., Tidewater Pub., 1986).

Published in: on April 1, 2011 at 8:15 pm  Comments Off on Fort Covington (1813-1836)  

“The Alarm Guns Have Just Fired – Every Man Is In Arms!” September 10, 1814

On September 7, following the capture of Washington on August 24, the British consolidated their naval and military forces at Tangier Island, Va. The British fleet, consisting of ships-of-the-line, frigates, sloops, schooners, troop transports, and bomb ships sailed up the Chesapeake – an armada of fifty warships.

At 1:30 p.m. on September 10th the alarms guns at Forts Madison and Severn were fired and church bells tolled as the British fleet, stretching to the horizon made their passage past Annapolis. “They could be distinctly ascertained from the haziness of the weather.” Panic overtook the city as residents gathered their belongings in wagons, militia companies assembled on the town greens, as express riders carried the news to Baltimore and Washington. The offices of the Maryland Gazette have all been called out for the city’s defense. Militia look-out posts on the Patapsco River ten miles northward raised their signal flags to like flags in Baltimore. The broad pennants of three British Admirals – Cochrane, Cockburn and Malcolm flew from the mastheads of His Majesty’s Ships Marlborough, Albion and Tonnant. Two weeks before in a letter to President Madison, Vice Admiral Cochrane declared his intention “to destroy and lay waste such towns and districts upon the coasts as may be found assailable.” Annapolis would be spared as the British sailed northward towards Baltimore.

Maryland and Virginia militia companies began to march to Annapolis, then to Baltimore. Seven days later, with defeat at Baltimore and the last major campaign in the Chesapeake, Annapolis for the last time witnessed the passing of the Royal Navy.

Sources: Maj. Barney to Samuel Smith, September 10, 1814, Maine Portland Gazette, September 19, 1814.

Published in: on April 1, 2011 at 7:21 am  Comments Off on “The Alarm Guns Have Just Fired – Every Man Is In Arms!” September 10, 1814  

U.S. Sea Fencibles at Fort McHenry, 1813-1815

AN ACT to Authorize the Raising a Corps of Sea Fencibles.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby authorized to raise for such term as he may think proper, not exceeding one year, as many companies of sea fencibles as he may deem necessary, not exceeding ten, who may be employed as well on land as on water, for the defense of the ports and harbors of the United States.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That each of the said companies of sea fencibles shall consist of one captain, one first, one second, and one third lieutenant, one boatswain, six gunners, six quarter gunners, and ninety men.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the commissioned officers shall receive the same pay and rations as officers of the same grade in the army of the United States; that the boatswains, gunners, quarter gunners, and men shall receive the same pay and rations as warrant officers of the same grade and able seamen receive in the service of the United States.

Sec. 4. And be it farther enacted, That the officers, warrant officers, boatswains, and men raised pursuant to this act, shall be entitled to the like compensation in case of disability incurred by wounds or otherwise in the service of the United States, as officers, warrant officers, and seamen in the present naval establishment, and shall be subject to the rules and articles which have been or may hereafter be established by law, for the government of the army of the United States.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That this act shall be and continue in force during the present war between the United States of America and their territories, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dependencies thereof.

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That in the recess of the Senate, the President of the United States is hereby authorized to appoint all the officers proper to be appointed under this act, which appointments shall be submitted to the Senate at their next session for their advice and consent.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the sum of two hundred thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated to carry this act into effect, to be paid out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.

APPROVED, July 26, 1813.

 

AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

SEA FENCIBLES, A number of men are wanting to make a company of Sea Fencibles. Seamen, Ordinary Seamen or Landsmen. It will be a comfortable situation during the Embargo, for those who are out of employ. The pay is 12 dollars per month and navy rations; to serve one year, and paid their whole wages monthly. Those who enlist are not liable to be transferred to the Flotilla or any other corps, but are to act as occasion may require under their own Officers, for the defense of Baltimore. Those who wish to enlist will apply at the rendezvous, No. 70 st. F[ell’s] P[oint] or at Fort McHenry. None need apply but healthy men. M. SIMMONES BUNBURY, Capt. U.S. Sea Fencibles.”

On July 26, 1813 Congress passed “An Act authorizing the raising a corps of sea fencibles,” who may be employed as well on land as on water, for the defense of the ports and harbors of the United States.” Congress authorized ten companies along the eastern seaboard of which two were raised in Baltimore. These unique amphibious artillery companies were under captains Matthew S. Bunbury and William H. Addison.

The word “fencibles” were defined as corps raised for limited service, exercised in the use of musketry and sea-board defense fixed fortifications and the maneuvering of gunboats. Though seamen in general they were under the U.S. War Department and issued muskets and acroutrements. They, except for the officers who wore the standard U.S. Infantry uniform, the enlisted men wore no standard uniform, only the clothing of their trade.

Their defense of the marine shore batteries at Fort McHenry in September 1814 helped give inspiration to a new national hymn “The Star-Spangled Banner.” In June of 1815 the corps was discontinued.

Sources: Baltimore Patriot, April 13, 1814; Acts and Resolutions of Congress, Record Group 11, National Archives; Scott S. Sheads, “U.S. Sea Fencibles at Fort McHenry, 1813-1815,” (Military Collector & Historian, vol. 34, No. 4, Winter 1982), 159-163.

Published in: on March 31, 2011 at 7:10 pm  Comments Off on U.S. Sea Fencibles at Fort McHenry, 1813-1815  

Capt. George Stiles (1760-1819) & The First Marine Artillery of the Union

In the War of 1812 military annals, no other militia corps raised in Baltimore equaled the services in encouraging their fellow citizen-soldiers and sailors than Captain George Stiles and his Fell’s Point naval militia corps, The First Marine Artillery of the Union, which defended Baltimore during the British invasion of the Chesapeake in 1813-1814.

George Stiles was born in 1760 to Joseph and Phoebe “Hannah” Stiles of Harford (Bush) Town, Harford County, Maryland. During the war his seamen’s corps of 200 mariners were responsible for building the shore gun batteries at Fort McHenry, the Babcock and Lazaretto Batteries, rowing guard below the Fort, and sinking merchant ships in the channel. Maj. General Samuel Smith called Stiles’ corps of mariners his “strong right arm.”

“[George Stiles] countenance [was] marked with traits of intelligence and energy with standing as a ship-master and ship-owner…with the sound principles of science…life of public spirit, of open patriotism and fervent benevolence…without wishing to disparage the great services of many brave men…Capt. Stiles did more than any other man to serve Baltimore.”

During the Battle for Baltimore they took part in the defenses on Hampstead Hill (Patterson Park today) with their five heavy 18-pounder field guns – ” were as a host to Baltimore.”

Captain George Stiles died in 1819, with none other than General Andrew Jackson, who was visiting Baltimore, was by his side. He lies buried with his “lads of the ocean a-shore” in unmarked graves near Fell’s Point within the old Second Presbyterian Church graveyard (John Glendy Graveyard) at Gay and Broadway, forgotten by the city they served and saved.

 Sources: Niles’ Weekly Register, June 26, 1813: Baltimore Patriot, September 30, 1818.

Published in: on March 31, 2011 at 1:03 pm  Comments Off on Capt. George Stiles (1760-1819) & The First Marine Artillery of the Union  

A Flag Hoisted, A Moment to Remember, September 14, 1814

“At this time our morning gun was fired, the flag hoisted, and Yankee Doodle played…”  Private Isaac Munroe, U.S. Volunteers, Sept. 1814.

The words of Francis Scott Key still echo over the Patapsco River and Baltimore, when literally “by the dawn’s early light,” the American ensign was hoisted over the walls of Fort McHenry to the tune of Yankee Doodle, a young nation’s national air. What actually happened at that moment on September 14, 1814?  Was the flag hoisted in victory as the British sailed away?

These are the questions that often have been misrepresented in telling this compelling story that occured two hundred years ago. The answer lies not in the national anthem, nor in the “retreat” of the Royal Navy before Baltimore, but in the U.S. Army Regulations of 1813 and 1821 and eyewitness’ of the battle.

The Dawn’s Early Light – On the early morning hours of September 14, 1814, following a 25 hour naval bombardment at 4:30 a.m., the American batteries at Fort McHenry fell silent. Three hours later the British ships ceased firing. The tumultuous night of thunderstorms had now stopped. The sun had been up since 5:40 a.m. The bombardment smoke reflected the morning mists drifting along the shores of marsh grass and river surfaces.

The British fleet that had unleashed its armaments bombs and rockets against Fort McHenry, hoisted their sails and one by one began to sail down river – the Battle for Baltimore had ended. The garrison within, while overwhelmed of having survived the bombardment, now unexpectedly viewed the sudden withdrawal of the British navy from Baltimore.

At 9 a.m. four fifers and drummers of the U.S. Corps of Artillery lined up within the Star Fort parade ground for the raising of the morning colors. The 17’x 25’ storm flag that had flown during the tumultuous night was lowered. The great garrison flag measuring 42′ x 30′ was then ceremoniously raised over the star fort “In full glory reflected how shines in the stream,…” as remembered by Francis Scott Key. A month earlier a newspaper correspondent witnessed at Fort McHenry:

“Who that has ever heard the Reveille played at Fort McHenry by the skillful performers of that Garrison, but who will be ready to acknowledge the power of the “ear-piercing fife and spirit stirring drum,” when touched by the hand of a master? And who has not witnessed the effect produced on an audience at the Theatre, when some favorite air was struck up? Of National Airs we have as yet but few; but we have two that are sufficient for our purpose – Yankee Doodle and Hail Columbia – are as soul-aspiring airs as ever were composed…”

U.S. Army regulations make it very clear that daily at 9 a.m. the sentries of the Fort were changed, the fort’s cannon, a 6-pdr. is fired, and the fifes and drums played. However, amidst the celebration, remained a trepidation of another attack. Any clear celebration would  have to wait. The star-spangled banner that Key had witnessed was not raised in victory – but of U.S. Army regulations. It so happened the British departed on the very hour the U.S. regulations stated the flag be raised!

So much for the romantic nature of writers.

For the first time, an American had composed the words that gave the American flag new meaning and symbolism that had never been expressed before. From this moment, Americans began to refer to the flag as the star-spangled banner, so to the present day.

The flag that so inspired Francis Scott Key with the words that became a new national song is displayed at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American Histiry in Washington, D.C.

Sources: “National Music,” Baltimore American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, August 17, 1814; Rules and Regulations of the U.S. Army, 1812;

Published in: on March 30, 2011 at 6:35 pm  Comments Off on A Flag Hoisted, A Moment to Remember, September 14, 1814  

Midshipman Robert J.Barrett (1799-1828), H.M.frigate Hebrus: Sept. 14. 1814

Robert John Barrett entered the Royal Mavy on December 11, 1813 and was asigned to HM frigate Hebrus of 44 guns.

September 14, 1814. Onboard His Majesty’s frigate Hebrus, Midshipman Robert Barrett recorded in his dairy as the British navy departed Baltimore harbor: “..thus, after bombarding the forts and harbor of Baltimore for twenty-four hours, the squadron of frigates weighed, without firing a shot, upon the forenoon of the 14th, and were immediately followed by the bombs [ships] and sloops of war. In truth, as the last vessel spread her canvas to the wind, the Americans hoisted a most superb and splendid ensign on their battery, and fired at the same time a gun of defiance…”

The “gun of defiance” was actually the morning gun being fired from Fort McHenry, during the changing of the guard and the U.S. flag being raised as per U.S. Army regulations and the national song “Yankee Doodle” played by the fifes and drums of the garrison.

In 1843 he wrote an article entitled “Naval Recollections of the Late American War,” in which he gave a detailed account of his services in the Chesapeake campaigns of 1814.

Sources: “Naval Recollections of the Late American War,” United Service Journal (London, April 1843), 464-465; “A Letter from Baltimore, 1814: Yankee Doodle played,” by Scott S. Sheads (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Magazine, 1982); A Navl Biographical Dictionay…by William R. O’Byrne (London: John Murray, 1849), 50.;

Published in: on March 29, 2011 at 11:20 pm  Comments Off on Midshipman Robert J.Barrett (1799-1828), H.M.frigate Hebrus: Sept. 14. 1814  

Defenders of Fort McHenry, September 13-14, 1814

“…O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand / Between their lov’d home and the war’s desolution!  / Blest with vict’ry and peace may the heav’n rescued land / Praise the power that hath made and preserv’d us a nation!…” Francis Scott Key, 1814.

With the arrival of the British expeditionary forces landing at Benedict, Maryland on August 19, 1814, Major General Samuel Smith and Major George Armistead, commanding Fort McHenry  began to assemble those militia and federal forces for the defense of Fort McHenry. The following are those companies and officers that defended Fort McHenry during the bombardment of September 13-14, 1814.

U.S. Garrison of Fort McHenry

Capt. Frederick Evans – U.S. Corps of Artillery (60)

Capt. Matthew S. Bunbury, U.S. Sea Fencibles (60)

Capt. William H. Addison, U.S. Sea Fencibles (50)

 Maryland Militia, 1st Regiment of Artillery

Capt. John Berry, Washington Artillery, (100)

Lt. Commander Charles Pennington, Baltimore Independent Artillery (75).

U.S. Volunteers

Capt. Joseph H. Nicholson, Baltimore Fencibles, U.S. Volunteers (75)

U.S. Infantry

Lt. Colonel William Steuart, 38th U.S. Infantry

Capt. Joseph Hook, 36th U.S. Infantry (125)

Capt. William Rogers, 36th U.S. Infantry (130)

Capt. Sheppard Church Leakin, 38th U.S.Infantry (?)

Capt. Joseph H. Hook, 38th U.S. Infantry (100)

Capt. John Buck, 38th U.S. Infantry (100)

Capt. Thomas Sangsten, 14th U.S. Infantry (100)

 

U.S. Chesapeake Flotilla

Sailing Master Solomon Rodman, (60)

Total: 1035

Sources: “Report of Fort McHenry, September 13 & 14, 1814 in the Bombardment” Captain Thomas Sangsten, February 22, 1815; Major Armistead to Acting Secretary of War, James Monroe, September 24, 1814. “Letters Received, Secretary of War John Armstrong,” September 24, 1814.

Published in: on March 29, 2011 at 3:10 pm  Comments Off on Defenders of Fort McHenry, September 13-14, 1814  

Battery Babcock, 1813-1814

“I deem it absolutely necessary top erect a small Battery, south of the [powder] Magazine on the [Patapsco]river bank. It mounted six 18-pounder French naval guns behind a four foot high breastwork with a powder magazine in the rear covered with earth.”  Maj. General Samuel Smith, May 1813.

Known as the Six Gun Battery or the Sailor’s Battery, this  half-eliptical earthen gun battery built of sod, was located one and a half miles west of Fort McHenry upon the shores of the Patapsco Ferry Branch, southwest of present day Riverside Park in South Baltimore.

The U.S. was not willing to provide the expense of erecting it, so the City of Baltimore hired Captain Samuel Babcock, U.S. Engineers to lay out a plan requiring twenty or thirty men to dig the foundation. By the summer of 1813 it was completed and was garrisoned  by a company of  U.S. Sea Fencibles under Capt. William H. Addison. In September 1814 during the Battle for Baltimore, Sailing Master John Adams Webster (1786-1877) commanded the battery with seventy-five sailors from the U.S. Chesapeake Flotilla.   His 1853 account  provides a detailed report on the heroic occurences that took place on the night of September 13-14, 1814 when Battery Babcock, Forts Covington and McHenry, repulsed a  British barge offensive, the last action of the Battle for Baltimore.

“…Day and night we were on the alert, until hope was nearly extinct, when on the night of the 13th, about eleven o’clock, the bomb vessels appeared to renew their fire with redoubled energy. It was raining quite fast, and cold for the season. The rapid discharge of the bombs from the enemy’s shipping excited great vigilance among my officers and men. I had the cannon double shotted with 18-pound balls and grape shot and took a blanket and laid on the breastworks, as I was much exhausted.  About midnight I could hear a splashing in the water.The attention of the others was aroused and we were convinced it was the noise of the muffled oars of the British barges. Very soon afterwards we could discern small gleaming lights in different places. I felt sure then that it was the barges, which at that time were not more than two hundred yards off…”

Battery Babcock  soon thereafter opened its fire upon the barges, along with nearby Forts Look-Out, McHenry and Covington. Captain Charles Napier,RN commanding the British flotilla of barges, caught in a whethering cross-fire, soon retreated to the fleet having lost two barges in the attempt. However he had done his duty in providing “a diversion” for the land forces before Hampstead Hill for a midnight assault that never, though planned, materilized. 

In 1914 during the centennial celebration of the battle, a 6-pounder cannon was mounted near the original site on a granite stone monument pedestal.

Sources: The battery site, no longer extant, is located under the I-95 southern approach to the Fort McHenry Tunnel. Samuel Smith to the Committee of Public Supplies, May 4, 1813, Baltimore City Archives, RG 22; John A. Webster to Mayor Brantz, July 2, and August 10, 1853, The [Baltimore] Sun, Sept. 23, 1928. The British Invasion of Maryland, 1812-1815 by William M. Marine (Baltimore: 1913, reprinted by Genealogical Pub. Co., 1977), 177-181.

Published in: on March 29, 2011 at 2:50 pm  Comments Off on Battery Babcock, 1813-1814  

Frenchtown: April 29, 1813 – Cecil County

I have the honor to acquaint you that having yesterday gained information of the Depot of Flour…being with some Military and other Stores situated at a Place called French Town, a considerable distance up the River Elk. Rear Admiral George Cockburn to Admiral John Warren, April 29, 1813.

The first British landing incursion in Maryland occurred at Frenchtown and Elk Landing (Elkton), Cecil County on April 29, 1813. Thirty-six years before in August 1777, three hundred British warships, carrying 15,000 British and German Hessian troops had anchored off Elk Landing, fifteen miles above Frenchtown, then marched north to Philadelphia. That winter while General Washington’s continental army encamped at Valley Forge, the British occupied and entertained themselves in hospitable and warm Philadelphia.

In late April 1813, British warships again sailed up the Chesapeake towards Frenchtown a prosperous commercial port on the Elk River, a mile below Elkton on the upper bay. (Located on Frenchtown Road off Route 213.)

Frenchtown Gun Battery was an unfinished earthen battery mounted with four 6-pounder field guns which commanded the river channel at the Lower Wharf Landing, The battery was commanded by Captains Edward Oldham and William Garrett of the local militia all under the command of Major James Sewall of the 49th Maryland Regiment. He hastily assembled thirty to forty militia stage drivers and merchants along the Frenchtown waterfront as citizens began removing store goods, livestock and personal valuables into the back country.

April 29 – At 7 a.m. British barges advanced upon the town. While the militia “made a brave but ineffective effort to intercept their advance” the militia quit the battery and retreated. A Private Jess Ash offered his assessment, “I met the enemy in company with perhaps 40 others at Frenchtown, where the [British] crews of 11 barges, proved too strong for our resistance, and which caused our retreat, without effecting anything.” By 1:00 p.m. the British had captured and destroyed the town. Amidst the destruction were large quantities of U.S. army clothing, saddles, bridles and other cavalry equipage destined for the American army in Canada.

From Frenchtown the British moved onto Elkton but were repulsed by several earthen artillery redoubts along the river approach.

British ships that anchored nearby in the Elk River were HMS schooners Highflyer, Mohawke and Fantome, Arab, Lynx, Dolphin and Racer, and ships-of-the-lines Marlborough and Dragon from which the British barges had launched their attack.

Sources: George Cockburn Papers, Library of Congress, MSS 17576, Reel 4, Containers 6-7; Baltimore Patriot and Evening Advertiser, April 30, October 1, 1813; Donald G. Shomette, Lost Towns of Tidewater Maryland, (Centreville, Md.: Tidewater  Publishers, 2000), 254; “Extract from the Journal of H.B.M. tender Highflyer, April 28 -May 6, 1813.” Baltimore Patriot, October 18, 1813; (George Cockburn Papers, Library of Congress, MSS 17576, Reel 4, Containers 6-7); Alexandria Gazette, May 5, 1813.

Published in: on March 27, 2011 at 6:45 pm  Comments Off on Frenchtown: April 29, 1813 – Cecil County